3 K» fourth or *high* tone in Shan. Jt is Evident that the nvtlioft n^i-ted tor H!:rat?n<r it is unsatisfactory when the word consists ol a siude VQWP!, (4) The emphatic tone. In this there Is nn nhrupt t^r.rnmtw, w nirM^i cf^nwi of the voice at the end of the word Robinson indices i: ],y a »lo$ uui-v thi rmM, as in ma, a horse. It corresponds to Dr. Cushine's liffh or 4 '^:),W'e ' r^n. The above system makes no provision for Dr. fnshmu's RMjoVi CF '^tve* tope, m» for his double series of closed and open tone*. So far aa is possible, I shall follow Robinson's s>sfp^i of indicating tones tliroiifirhont the grammatical sketch only, The area of vocalrakry eovpjWl V Ir^ account of ihe language is too small to allow me to extend his system to th* wi-som* Robinson is not always consistent in his reprpsentatiui ol' ton»% and lor KW words in the grammatical sketch I have been unable to asculain t.lw tones ^ith certainty. Hence my indications should only he accepted finite de WWJB* Tor further information on the general subject of tones reference should bft made to pp. 67 and if. ante, Article.—The indefinite article is formed by adding d-lwgt one, after the noun; as in ooiS ^c^S tow d-lmg,, a certain man. Por the definite article, the pronoun mi, this, is often used. Thus <j j§ mn $Afl«, pigs, ^ ^ jg ;w« n«» A-/i««, the pigs. Gender,—Gender is unknown. In order to distinguish sex, either different words are used, such as GOT jpo, father, <s5 m& mother, or .else differentiating words are added. in the latter case, the male word is chai for human beings, thuk for inferior animals, and^yUfor birds. The female word is pa-ying or shmt for human beings, mi lor- inferior animals and birds. Thus,— ojoS t^cf W chai, son, c^oS c§ iwA */*««, daughter. 0^8 *3g^S o]_ vtf id-dnpa, cJiai) & O)S JSg^S o^ c88 t5-rf» j?d y%3 a male child, female child, on 08oS ma thuk, a horse, o"[ GO ma met a mate, o oS oj noA pM, a male bird, S£O$ GO noA- met a hen bird. ¥umber»—The plural is indicated (when necessary) by prefixing or sum sing khitu. When there is a pronoun or definite article it is suffixed to it. Thus,— So5 ^jf $M ^au> ducks; 8o5 <s>* j£ pet nai Mau, the dticks; £D"[ &<$ f <^5 a-nem A//a« ngo, those (a-n«») cows. In Ahom, Jchau is prefixed. Case,—The relationship of case is formed by prefixing or suffixing wordsf as in- Ahom. The Nominative takes no prefix or suffix. The Accusatiie usually takes no suffix. Sometimes it takes oy mat. Mai is also optionally used as a suffix of the daiive and the locutwe.